Arduino and the Photoresistor
A photoresistor or Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is basically a resistor that has a resistor that varies depending on how much light it is absorbing.
A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor.
The semiconductor absorbs photons and based on the quantity and frequency of the absorbed photons, it allows electronsto "jump" into the conduction band and complete a circuit.
This is a photoresistor:
And this is a detailed diagram of it's components:
This step-by-step guide will help you use a photoresistor with your Arduino.